3.EMIL RACOVITA-Canoeing or call NATURE

Fifteen was born in Iasi on November 1868. A former student Creanga, the hometown of his father’s urging cobalcescu.La Gregory, follows the University of Law in Paris, but his passion for nature says his word, so they join the Faculty of Sciences and the Sorbonne University, which graduated from 1891.La 29 years, Adventure gets his life participate any BELGIUM Southern aboard vessels. At that time, undertook a study life of whales, penguins and other polar birds

At only 25 years old is elected member of the Zoological Society of France. It is recommended (1897) to attend the Belgian Antarctic expedition’s naturalist (1897-1899) on board the ship Belgica, led by Adrien de Gerlache. This expedition, which starts in Antwerp on 10 August 1897, had an international character, in addition to Belgian, was also attended by Norwegian Roald Amundsen as chief mate, the American doctor Frederick Cook, Antoine meterologul Polish geologist Henryk Dobrowolski and Arctowski.

On the occasion calls made in Chile and on the shores of the Straits of Magellan, carried out comprehensive research on the flora and fauna. Land near Palmer in Antarctica, expediţionarii discovers a strait that was named the vessel “Belgica” and some islands (an island called Racovita Cobalcescu). May expedition entered the still incomplete map of Antarctica and Wiencke Island and Danco’s Land, named after two members of the expedition who perished on this journey.
During the “Belgica” was imprisoned ice (March 1898 – February 1899) naturalist expedition, along with other scientists, have înteprins numerous observations and scientific research. Material collected was subject to a number of 60 published volumes, representing a scientific contribution greater than all previous Antarctic expeditions are taking. Înteprins Romanian scientist of a study on the life of whales, penguins and other Antarctic birds, which earned a well deserved reputation.

The Belgica expedition

Main article: Belgian Antarctic Expedition

As a promising young scientist, Racoviţă was selected to be part of an international team that started out on a research expedition to Antarctica, aboard the ship Belgica.

[edit] Ship and crew

The Belgica anchored at Mount William

On 16 August 1897, under the aegis of the Royal Society of Geography in Brussels, Belgium, the Belgica, a former Norwegian wooden whaler, left the port of Antwerp, setting sail for the South. It was the ship that gave its name to the whole expedition. The three-mast ship was equipped with a 160 horse-power engine.

The expedition was led by the Belgian officer Adrien de Gerlache, who was also the ship’s owner.

The 19 members of the team were of various nationalities, a rare thing for that time. The first mate of the vessel was Roald Amundsen (who was to conquer the South Pole in 1911). Apart from Racoviţă, the team was made up of Belgian physicist Émile Danco, Polish geologist and oceanographer Henryk Arctowski with his assistant Anton Dobrowolski and American physician Frederick Cook.

[edit] Scientific work

The team left the deck of the ship 22 times, in order to collect scientific data, to conduct investigations and experiments. Racoviţă was the first researcher to collect botanical and zoological samples from areas beyond the Antarctic Circle.

Belgica made the first daily meteorological recordings and measurements in Antarctica, every hour, for a whole year. The scientists also collected information on oceanic currents and terrestrial magnetism, with as many as 10 volumes of scientific conclusions being published at the end of the expedition, which was considered a success.

[edit] The 1898 obstacles

The expedition encountered several hardships. Between March 10, 1898, and March 14, 1899, Belgica was caught between ice blocks, making it impossible to sail any further. It was a difficult year for the whole team. For instance, the crew had to carve a 75 meter-long canal through a 6 meter-thick layer of ice, in order to generate a waterway by which to sail to a navigable body of water.

Belgica returned to Europe in 1899 without two team-members, who had died during the expedition: a young Belgian mariner and Émile Danco.

Racoviţă’s diary, published in 1899, makes mention of the difficulties that the team-members had to endure. Photos of the time show that he was hardly recognisable after returning from the expedition.

The results of his research were published in 1900, under the title La vie des animaux et des plantes dans l’Antarctique (“The life of animals and plants in Antarctica”). A year after his return, Racoviţă was appointed director of the Banyuls-sur-Mer resort and editor of the review Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale.

Later life

Emil Racoviţă continued his research, contributing to speleology and exploring over 1,400 caves in France, Spain, Algeria, Italy, and Slovenia. He is considered to be, together with René Jeannel, one of the founders of biospeleology. He was particularly interested in isopoda of which he discovered many. In 1919, Racoviţă became head of the Biology Department at the Upper Dacia University (now the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj. He founded the world’s first Speleological Institute in 26 April 1920 there, first as a section which was, however, to function independently since 1956, with professor Constantin Motas. ISER (Institutul Speologic Emil Racoviţă—Romanian for The Emil Racoviţă Speleologic Institute), a branch of the Cluj institute was open in Bucharest.

In 1920, he became a member of the Romanian Academy, and remained a major figure of scientific life in Romania until his death.

In 2006, the first Romanian Antarctic exploration station was named Law-Racoviţă.

Major works

  • Essai sur les problèmes biospéologiques (“Essay on biospeleological problems”; 1907)
  • Speologia (“Speology”; 1927)
  • Evoluţia şi problemele ei (“Evolution and its problems”; 1929)

All it reveals whale spout, which brought him fame in Europe.
In 1904 comes out a new passion: he became fascinated by the study of groundwater fauna pesteriloraal hangings and table, both domestic as well as other countries such as Spain, Bulgaria, Italy and Algeria. Canoeing founded the institute at the University of clujprimul SpeologieDIN world and taught the first course in biology, genre from Romania. programulinternational He initiated research “biospeleological” dedicated to studying wild caves.
Romin explorer died on November 17, 1947

Functions held

* Senator, represented the University in Cluj 1922-1926
* Rector of the University of Cluj 1929-1930
* President of the Romanian Academy of Sciences 1926 – 1929
* Director of the Institute of Speleology 1920 – 1947
* Member of several scientific association.

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